maritime law blocade Constantinople

Posted on February 18th, 2011 by iulia and filed under Navigation and trade
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Arthur Young, A digest of maritime law cases, from 1837 to 1860
London, Horace Cox, 10, Wellington-Street, Strand. 1865

http://books.google.com/books?id=3Sw1AAAAIAAJ

p. 103

1534. The occupation of a neutral state by an enemy (as of Moldavia by the Russians in the late war) does not deprive its inhabitants of their neutral character, unless the country is brought under the dominion of the enemy, and its neutral character thereby changed: (The Gerasimo, J.C.P.C., March 24, 1857; W.Rep. 450.)

Posted on Friday, February 18th, 2011 at 11:18 PM and is filed under Navigation and trade. RSS 2.0 feed.

mines not exploited

Posted on July 27th, 2010 by admin and filed under Dacia Felix, paysan du danube topos in literature
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Encyclopædia americana, Thomas, Cowperthwait, & co., 1838, vol. VIII, p. 563

Moldavia(in German, Moldau; Turkish, Bogdan); a province of the Ottoman empire, with the title of principality [...] population differently stated as from 360,000 to 500,000. [...] The winters are severe; the heat is great in sumemr, but the nights are cool. The soil is fertile, but war and and oppressive government have prevented if from being well cultivated. Corn, fruits, wine, honey, wax, and tobbacco of an inferior quality, are amond the principal productions; the gold, silver and iron mines are not worked; mineral salt and salt-petre are produced in large quantities. The greater part of the country is devoted to paturage, and immence numbers of horses, black cattle, sheep and swine are raised by the inhabitants. The horses are strong, active and gentle, and 10,000 have been exported annually to Austria and Prussia. The cattle are of an excellent quality, and have been sent generally to Poland and Russia. The inhabitants are strongly attached to the Greek church. The Moldavians are supposed to be descendants of the ancient Dacians, whose country they occupy, of Roman colonists, and of the Sclavonians, who conquered Moldavia. Their language is a corrupt Latin, mixed with Sclavonic [...] They are described as ignorant, indolent, treacherous and vindictive; although not slaves, they have always been subject of the severest oppression.

Posted on Tuesday, July 27th, 2010 at 2:54 AM and is filed under Dacia Felix, paysan du danube topos in literature. RSS 2.0 feed.

gold in Moldavia

Posted on July 27th, 2010 by admin and filed under Dacia Felix
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Title Magazine of natural history, Volume 7
Editors John Claudius Loudon, Edward Charlesworth, John Denson
Publisher printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1834
Subjects Natural history

http://books.google.com/books?id=Lv188_HmLGUC&dq=Moldavia%20gold&lr=&as_brr=1&pg=PA647#v=onepage&q=Moldavia%20gold&f=false

article Art VII Facts and Considerations on the Strata of Mont Blanc
and on some Instances of Twisted Strata observable in Switzerland by
JR with Remarks thereon by the Rev WB Clarke AMFGS &c , p. 647

are though novel preserving The granite of Mont Blanc is said to
contain gold Gold is very common in all soils and in most river beds
though in quantity too minute to be observable It is universally
distributee and may be procured from decayed vegetable matter It is
obtained in small quantities near Simplon on the route of that name
most alluvial deposits have traces of it See the localities and river
beds named by Leonhard and Phillips and Jameson The washing of the
sand of the Rhine at Baden produced in 1827 2317 kr 53J gr of gold
from 1828 to 1829 2999 kr 44 gr Allgemeine Handlung Zei tung Oct 1829
Gold is also found in the rivers of the north of Moldavia in the
Goldbach near Audel in Treves near Endkirch on the Moselle and in the
Guldenbach near Strom berg in the neighbourhood of Coblentz
Gruithuisen Analektenftlr Erd und Himmels hinde part iii p 36

Posted on Tuesday, July 27th, 2010 at 2:43 AM and is filed under Dacia Felix. RSS 2.0 feed.

canal between Rassova and Kustendji

Posted on July 16th, 2010 by admin and filed under Danube Channel
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rev. Henry Christmass, The Sultan of Turkey, Abdul Medjid Khan: A brief memory of his live and reign, with notices of the Country, its Army, Navy & present Prosperity, London: John Farquah Shaw, 1854, p. 74.

[Russia bad, Islamists good etc. etc. etc.] ” why does Russia thwart every effort to effect a canal from Rassova to Kustendji, which would open the trade of Hungary and the interior of the Austrian empire to Western Europe? ” … [Russia bad, Islamists good, etc. etc.]

Posted on Friday, July 16th, 2010 at 2:30 AM and is filed under Danube Channel. RSS 2.0 feed.

old roman canal Danube

Posted on July 16th, 2010 by admin and filed under Danube Channel
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The World’s Hightway. From the “Calcutta Review”, March 1856, London: John Weale, 59, High Holborn, 1856, p. 38

“My dear Sir, I wrote you from Paris in haste when I was leaving for Strasbourg. I only cursorily referred to the communication with Prince Callimaki, which was satisfactory, as he interested himself much in it — and is considered to be an able man. He gave me strong letters to Constantinople, advised crossing by a boat bridge, and not thinking of a fixture. Knew the nature and extent of the existing trade between Constantinople and Adrianople, and between Scutari and Isnikmid, fully asured that it would render a line there as a beginning, remunerative; had seen the iron mines worked by Government, about Nessa Sophia, and Philippoli, which yielded good metal, and believed coal was in abundance, extending all along the coast of the Black Sea, from the Danube mouths to the Straits, and projecting far into the Black Sea; considered the Balkan an engineering difficulty by no means insuperable, and the contry between Akserai and Sovea in Asiatic Turkey, killy and uneven– the rest all level, and easily adapted to railway purposes; it had been intended to re-open an old Roman canal which united the Danube with the Black Sea, and saved a detour, but it had not been begun yet. He considered that Turkey was a rich country, which only required such a work as this to show what it contained, and that it hadnever yet had the opportunity of showing of waht it was capable. He took a great deal of trouble, and appeared very confident that if steadily followed up, there can be no doubt of Turkey’s cordial concurrence. He thought that perhaps the Balkan might be avoided, by following the course of the Danube along the canal line, and then skirting the Black Sea to Constantinople. These are, however, questions of detail for the future. He thinks also that it would be necessary for the work to be done bypublic companies with Government support, and not by the Government itself, in an undertaking of this nature.”

Posted on Friday, July 16th, 2010 at 2:14 AM and is filed under Danube Channel. RSS 2.0 feed.

vampyres

Posted on July 12th, 2010 by admin and filed under vampyres
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The Craftsman, no. 307, May 20, 1732

Extract of a private Letter from Vienna

“We have received certain Advice of a Sort of Prodigy lately discover’d in Hungary, at a Place call’d Heyducken, situate on the other Side of the Tibiscus, or Theis; anmely, of a dead Bodies sucking, as it were, the Blood of the Living; for the latter visiblydry up, while the former are fill’d with Blood. The Fact at first Sight seems to be impossible and even ridiculous; but the following is a true Copy of a Relatin attested by unexceptionable Witnesses, and sent to the Imperial Council of War.

Medreyga in Hungary, Jan. 7, 1732.

“Upon a current Report, that in the Village of Medreyga certain dead Bodies (call’d here Vampyres) had kill’d several Persons, by sucking out all their Blood, the present Enquiry was made by the honourable Commander in Chief; and Capt. Goschutz of the Company of Stallater, the Hadnagi Bariacrar, and the Senior Heyduke of the Village were severally examined; who unanimously declared that about five Years ago a certain Heyduke, named Arnold Paul, was kill’d by the Overturning of a Cart-Load of Hay, who in his Filfe-time was often heard to say, he had been tormented near Caschaw, and upon the Borders of Turkish Servia, by a Vampyre; and that to extricate himself, he had eaten some of the earth of the Vampyre’s Graves, and rubb’d himself with their Blood.

That 20 or 30 Days after the Decease of the said Arnold Paul, several Persons complain’d that They were tormented, and that, in short, he had taken away the Lives of four Persons. In order, therefore, to puta Stop to such a Calamity, the Inhabitants of the Place, after having consulted their Hardagi, caused he Body of the said Arnold Paul to be taken up, 40 Days after he had been dead, and found the same to be fresh and free from all Manner of Corruption; that he bled at the Nose, Mouth and Ears, as pure and florid Blood as ever was seen; and that his Shroud and Winding-Sheet were all over bloody; and lastly his Finger and Toe Nails were fallen off, and new ones grown in their Room.

As They observed from all these Circumstances, that he was a Vampyre, They according to Custom drove a Stake through his Heart; at which he gave a horrid Groan, and lost a gread deal of Blood. Afterwards they burnt his Body to Ashes the same Day, and thrrew them into his Grave.

These good Med say farther, that all such as have been tormented, or kill’d by the Vampyres, become Vampyres when they are dead; and therefore They served several other Bodies as They had done Arnold Paul’s, for tormenting the Living.

Signed,
Batruer, first Lieutenant fo the Regiment of Alexander.
Flickhenger, Surgeon Major to the Regiment of Furstenburch.
three other Surgeons.
Gurschitz, Captain a Stallath.

Posted on Monday, July 12th, 2010 at 5:06 PM and is filed under vampyres. RSS 2.0 feed.

the truth about vampyres and their ilk

Posted on July 12th, 2010 by admin and filed under vampyres
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Leopold von Ranke, The history of Servia, page 46. It has nothing to do with Vlad the Impaler, but is most amusing: imperial bureaucracy making folk tales from the periphery official, and causing panic in the hearth of the empire.

The Austrians were fascinated with spirits that had a taste for young virginal blood, and after Serbia was lost, the story was moved to the “Krapaks” (somewhere in the Tatra mountains) , and playwrights and balet directors had their way with it most unashamedly. By the time Stoker got his turn, the stories about evil dead lusting for the blood of young and inexperienced females were common place, and the Carpathians (Krapak -> Carpat … kinda sounds the same, and were futher away from the enlightened cities of the Empire) were cursed with being the place where it all was supposed to start.

““Curieuse und sehrwunderbare Relation von denen sich neuer Dingen in Servien erzeigenden Blut Saugern oder Vampyrs” 1732.

A small publication which is founded on two official reports of the years 1725 and 1732 forwarded to Belgrade at the time of the Austrian rule in Servia. The last addressed to Prince Charles Alexander of Wurtemberg, at that time Governor of Belgrade, is a very circumstantial account and certified by the signature of a colonel an ensign and three surgeons in the army. As the Prince was staying at Stuttgart it became known in Germany and the people were already afraid that the vampyres might spread there and visit them also. “

Posted on Monday, July 12th, 2010 at 3:49 PM and is filed under vampyres. RSS 2.0 feed.

evil lazy peasants

Posted on July 9th, 2010 by admin and filed under Uncategorized
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“The Bohemian peasants are miserable to the degree; their persons and all that they have, are at the command of the Lord. The poor wretches have often not a bit of bread to eat, in a country which is one of the most plentiful in Europe all sorts of provisions. They dare not go one from village to another to work, nor learn a handicraft trade without their Lord’s consent. So much subjection keeps the poor creatures always trembling and humble; so that if you do but speak to them, they are ready to lick the dust off feet. The severity with which these people are used, is really terrible; but ’tis as true on the hand, that gentle usage has no effect upon them; for they are excessively lazy and stubborn, and being moreover used to harsh treatment, from generation to generation, blows scarce terrify them though ’tis the only way to make them good any thing.

The Bohemians have a great genius for musick; so that there’s no village, be it ever so small, the mass is sung in concert; and they are happy at winding the hunter’s horn.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=wLI-AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA7&hl=en&ei=8343TJ2-IZXNjAfl6a2DBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CFAQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q&f=false

Posted on Friday, July 9th, 2010 at 11:17 PM and is filed under Uncategorized. RSS 2.0 feed.

Edmund Spencer, “Travels in European Turkey, in 1850″

Posted on November 12th, 2009 by admin and filed under Dacia Felix, Danube Channel, Navigation and trade, paysan du danube topos in literature
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Edmund Spencer, “Travels in European Turkey, in 1850: through Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Thrace, Albania, and Epirus, with a visit to Greece and the Ionian Isles, and a homeward tour through Hungary and the Slavonian provinces of Austria on the Lower Danube”, London, Colburn and Co., 1851, vol. 2, p. 404

We would recommend the traveller, who may be desirous to make the tour of the Danube from Constantinople, to land at the little port of Kostendshe, on the Black Sea, by which he will escape a long and disagreeable voyage round by Soulina, the only navigable channel of all the outlets of the Danube. At Kostendshe he will find an agent of the Austrian Navigation Company, whose duty is to aid the traveller and attend to his wants. There are vehicles always in readiness to convey him to Tchernawoda, on the Danube, where he can amuse himself by visiting the villages of the Bulgarians in the neighbourhood till the arrival of the steam-boat.

In the time of the Romans, the Emperor Trajan entertained the idea of making a canal from this place to the Euxine, which, if completed, would shorten the distance from about three hundred miles to thirty, an enterprise that might be carried into effect at a very trifling expense, when we consider that the ground is quite level, with the Karasou lake in the centre of sufficient depth to assist the undertaking.

The late Sultan Mahmoud, who was really a man of energy, caused the ground to be measured and marked [p. 405] out, and would have carried the work into execution, had he not been prevented by the Cabinet of St. Petersburg. We presume, because it was contrary to the treaties of the navigation of the Danube, which secured to Russia the only practicable route to the Black Sea — that by Soulina; but as this treaty has expired or was said to expire in 1850, leaving the navigation of the Danube open to every nation, this much-desired work ought to be carried into execution, which would not only pay the contractors an immense profit, but considerably benefit the commerce of the Lower Danube. We fear, however, that the weak sovereigns of Austria and Turkey dread the displeasure of the Autocrat too much to carry the design of the vigorous Roman into execution.

In the mean time the poor mariner is obliged to adopt the long and tortuous route, the Soulina channel, which, owning to the accumulation of sand at the bar, can only receive vessels of a hundred and fifty tons burden; and we have still greater cause to regret, the non-completion of this work, when we remember the number of lives that are lost every year by malaria and fever during this voyage, rendered so long and tiresome, by endeavouring to avoid the sand-banks, as the mariner is almost certain to carry home with him the seeds of a disease, which it is said never leaves him.

Such a canal as we have alluded to, if constructed of sufficient depth for large merchant vessels, would materially facilitate navigation; for after passing the Delta of the Danube, the river deepens considerably till we arrive at Kladesitza, in Servia; here the navigation [p. 406] of the Danube is again interrupted by a ridge of rocks running across the river, called the Demirkapa (iron gate), and notwithstanding all Count Sz’echenyi, that excellent Hungarian, had done to deepen the bed of the river, the passage is still dangerous. This was proved a few years since by the loss of a vessel, its crew and passengers. The boat, on arriving in the midst of the rapids struck against a rock, became unmanageable and turning round with the most frightful rapidity, was instantly submerged in a whirlpool sufficient to engulf a man-of-war. The only panssenger that escaped was na Osmanli, who, being doubtful fo the ability of St. Nicholas, the patron saint of the Danube to ensure the safety of the vessel, landed with the intention of pursuing his journey on the banks of hte river till the danger was past. But the laughter and ridicule of his fellow passengers induced him ot alter his determination, and as he was in the act of stepping on board, a ring containing an amulet slipped from his finger, this was decisive — he would not tempt Kismet, and thus to the loss of a ring he owed his life.

Like that between Kostendshe and Tchernawoda, this break in the navigation of the Danube might easily be avoided by cutting a canal on the Servian side of the river at Kladesitza, which would then open an uninterrupted communication from the Black Sea into the heart of Germany, and shorten the route between Constantinople and Vienna, to a five days’ voyage at the utmost. It would appear, from the appearance of the marsh, that a canal had actually existed here, at some time or other, perhaps the work of the Romans, [p. 407] and which on their expulsion from the country, and the barbarism that followed, fell into disuse, and in process of time became filled up.

Can anything afford a more decisive proof than this, of the want of energy and enterprize in the inhabitants of these provinces; and of the indolent supineness of their rulers. We may ridicule the apathy and inertness of the Turks, yet here we see the noblest river in Europe running a course of eighteen hundred miles from its source to the Black Sea, traversing a succession of the most fertile countries, and uniting by the most natural, direct, and least expensive route the commerce of Central Europe with the vast countries of the East, still remaining in a state of nature. Every successive flood carries away with it the soil, and not unfrequently even the villages on its banks, and form accumulations, which impede navigation, together with vast marshes and stagnant lakes, from which arise exhalations, the most prejudicial to the health of man.

A few hundred thousand Anglo-Saxon colonists, if they found these countries a desert, would have done more in fifty years for the navigation of this noble river, and the salubrity of its banks, than all its Czars, Kaisers and Padishahs, Krals and Ko:nigs, Herzogs, Hospodars, Beys, and noble Princes, have effected in centuries. It is true they perfectly understand the parade, the marching, drilling and stuffing of soldiers (we do not mean internally), the ‘eclat and magnificence of courtly etiquette, the maintenance of an army of spies and court favourites, nor are any more sensitive [p. 408] to an invasion of their own royal will, or more prompt in cutting the throats of their own subjects, and those of their neighbours, about some crochet of precedency, or an acre of disputed territory. To support htese undertakings money is ever forthcomming; but for the execution of any great work of public utility, the advancement of industry and commerce, there is not a farthing to be found in the exchequer. Can we then wonder at the discontent of a people, ground down by taxation to support all this theatrical display, and finery of the State; or at Socialism, Republicanism, Deutsch-catholicism, Panslavism, Panteutonism, and all the other isms, which have already shaken Europe to its centre ?

Let, then, the rulers of Europe combine with one accord, and

Posted on Thursday, November 12th, 2009 at 12:34 AM and is filed under Dacia Felix, Danube Channel, Navigation and trade, paysan du danube topos in literature. RSS 2.0 feed.

patrie des cochons

Posted on October 28th, 2009 by admin and filed under paysan du danube topos in literature
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Quelle serail donc la combinaison qui offrirait un remède efficace? Il n’y en a qu’une, et c’est l’Autriche seule à qui est dévolue cette mission providentielle. Si, fortement établie sur une des rives du Pruth, elle possédait les Principautés Danubiennes et les aggrégations possibles, elle deviendrait l’avant-garde de l’Europe occidentate; soutenue par elle, elle serait la seule el vérilable digue où viendrail so briser l’ambition moscovite, qui ne liendra jamais aucun compte sérieux des traités avec la Turquie : elle est trop habituée à les fouler aux pieds ou à les éluder par la corruption.

Mais l’Angleterre el la France peuvent-elles consentir à cette extension territoriale de l’Autriche, sans que celle-ci renonce à quelques-unes de ses possessions en Italie, et à son protectorat sur tous les autres états de la Péninsule? Non, elles ne pourraient pas, elles ne le voudront pas, car il s’agil de donnei’ une nouvelle force à l’Autriche dans ! lutéréi générai de l’Europe. Or, s’étendre n’est pas toujours se fortifier, el dans notre hypolhése la concentration est un élémént de force.

Nous savons bien que l’ancien chancelier prince de Melternich dirait, à celui qui lui parlerai! d’un semblable échange : Fi donc i changer la patrie des arts pour celle des cochons, faisant allusion à la production et au commerce qui se fail de ce bélail en Moldavie et Valachie. Ce mot est plus spirìluel que juste, car il vaut mieux étever des pourceaux qu’on en- graisse et que l’on veud au grand profil du commerce el de l’agriculture, que de gouverner une race d’arlistes qu’il i’aut exiler, envoyer au età-cere duro ou fusiller. Etouffer l’esprit indépendant des Italiens, artistes par instinct, sous la bàton stupide des soldats croates, est un ròle odieux; ceux-ci seraient plus propres à garder les troupeaux de la Moldavie et de la Valachie : on est mal venu de parler avec enthousiasroe et respect de la patrie des arts, quand on l’opprime sous une main de fer et par les états de siéges en permanence.

La Question de l’Orient et la Question Italienne,Rivista contemporanea, vol. VIII, 1856

Posted on Wednesday, October 28th, 2009 at 12:09 AM and is filed under paysan du danube topos in literature. RSS 2.0 feed.